Venezuela Analysis has some interesting reflections by George Ciccariello-Maher on the concept of urban marginality in Caracas (originally published in Jacobin), and which can be generalized, to some extent, to other Latin American cities. Ciccariello-Maher argues that
the concept of marginality was itself more about fear than description, never successfully accounting for the centrality of shantytown residents in the circulatory system of the capital. Calling the urban poor “marginal” was a mantra that sought to exorcise a threat, but it failed spectacularly. And by invisibilizing the poor, it only intensified the inevitable shock.
Read the complete article here.